The reason Is definitely Modern dating is harder for guys — In particular Intended for Driven

The changes in secondary sexual characteristics that occur during puberty are often referred to in terms of Tanner’s five stages, named after the British pediatrician who devised the categorization system.

The human brain is not fully developed when a person reaches puberty. Between the ages of 10 and 25, the brain undergoes changes that have important implications for behavior (see Cognitive Development below). The brain reaches 90% of its adult size when a person is six years old. Therefore, the brain does not grow much in size during adolescence. However, brain folding continues to become more complex until late adolescence. The greatest changes in the folds during this period occur in the parts of the cortex that process cognitive and emotional information.

During adolescence, the amount of white matter in the brain increases linearly, while the amount of gray matter in the brain follows an inverted U pattern. Through a process called synaptic pruning, unnecessary neuronal connections in the brain are eliminated and the amount of gray matter is reduced. However, this does not mean that the brain loses function; rather, it becomes more efficient due to increased myelination (isolation of axons) and reduction of unused pathways.

The first areas of the brain to prune are those that involve primary functions, such as motor and sensory areas. Areas of the brain involved in more complex processes lose matter later in development. These include the lateral and prefrontal cortices, among other regions. Some of the most developmentally significant changes in the brain occur in the prefrontal cortex, which is involved in decision making and cognitive control, as well as other higher cognitive functions. During adolescence, myelination and synaptic pruning in the prefrontal cortex increase, improving the efficiency of information processing and the neural connections between the prefrontal cortex and other brain regions are strengthened. This leads to a better assessment of the risks and benefits, as well as better impulse control. In particular, developments in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are important for controlling impulses and planning ahead, while development in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex is important for decision making. Changes in the orbitofrontal cortex are important in assessing rewards and risks.

Three neurotransmitters that play an important role in adolescent brain development are glutamate, dopamine and serotonin. Glutamate is an excitatory neurotransmitter. During the synaptic pruning that occurs during adolescence, most of the neural connections that are pruned contain receptors for glutamate or other excitatory neurotransmitters. For this reason, synaptic balance in the brain is more inhibitory than excitatory in early adulthood.

Dopamine is associated with pleasure and attunement to the environment during decision making. During adolescence, dopamine levels in the limbic system rise and the supply of dopamine to the prefrontal cortex increases. The balance of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters and increased dopamine activity in adolescence may have implications for adolescent risk-taking and vulnerability to boredom (see Cognitive Development below).

Serotonin is a neuromodulator involved in the regulation of mood and behavior. Development in the limbic system plays an important role in determining rewards and punishments and in processing emotional experience and social information. Changes in the levels of dopamine and serotonin neurotransmitters in the limbic system make teens more emotional and more responsive to rewards and stress. The corresponding increase in emotional variability can also increase adolescent vulnerability. The effect of serotonin is not limited to the limbic system: several serotonin receptors drastically change their gene expression during adolescence, particularly in the human frontal and prefrontal cortex.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *